Artikel getaggt mit ‘NetworkX’

April 10th, 2013

Solving the Minimum Cost Flow problem (5) – NetworkX

Network Simplex Solver: NetworkX

We will solve the instance of a Minimum cost flow problem described in (1) with NetworkX. Node 1 is the source node, nodes 2 and 3 are the transshipment nodes and node 4 is the sink node.


Solving a Minimum Cost Flow Problem with NetworkX is pretty straight forward.

# import networkx
import networkx as nx

# create directed graph
G = nx.DiGraph()

# add node to graph with negative (!) supply for each supply node 
G.add_node(1, demand = -4)

# you can ignore transshipment nodes with zero supply when you are working with the mcfp-solver 
# of networkx
# add node to graph with positive (!) demand for each demand node
G.add_node(4, demand = 4)

# add arcs to the graph: fromNode,toNode,capacity,cost (=weight)
G.add_edge(1, 2, capacity = 4, weight = 2)
G.add_edge(1, 3, capacity = 2, weight = 2)
G.add_edge(2, 3, capacity = 2, weight = 1)
G.add_edge(2, 4, capacity = 3, weight = 3)
G.add_edge(3, 4, capacity = 5, weight = 1)

# solve the min cost flow problem
# flowDict contains the optimized flow
# flowCost contains the total minimized optimum
flowCost, flowDict = nx.network_simplex(G)

print "Optimum: %s" %flowCost  #should be 14

As you can see the code is very readable and easy to understand. The only thing you could get trouble with in the formulation of a min cost flow problem with networkx is the fact that the supply nodes get a negative supply value (because the python attribute is called „demand“) while the demand nodes require positive demand values.
This differs from the usual mathematical notation of supply and demand values in the network flow problems where supply values are positive and demand values of negative sign.
Also note that you only need to add supply and demand nodes to the graph. You don’t have to care of the transshipment nodes.

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März 31st, 2013

Solving the Minimum Cost Flow Problem (2) – Software

I don’t want to give you a complete overview of MCFP solvers because I just dipped into the world of linear and network flow programming. Instead of this I just want to mention a few MCFP solvers that I have tested. Python will be the programming language for the test – so I checked solvers with the corresponding language bindings.

Linear program solvers

As mentioned in the previous article one can solve MCFP also as ordinary linear programs. So here are the two packages I tested.


lpsolve is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) solver written in C released under the LGPL. You can use lpsolve on Windows and Linux systems. For windows there is a nice GUI which is called LPSolveIDE. It reads several LP file formats such as *.mpl, *.lp and also the DIMACS file format which is used for network flow problems. Furthermore it has a rich API: you can use lpsolve with .NET (there is even a lpsolve plugin for Microsofts Solver Foundation MSF!), Java, PHP and Python.


PuLP is kind of a python wrapper for various (LP) solver packages released under the MIT license:

 PuLP is an LP modeler written in python. PuLP can generate MPS or LP files and call GLPK (, COIN (, CPLEX (, and GUROBI ( to solve linear problems.


Specialized MCFP solvers

As the MCFP is a special linear program that can be solved more efficiently with algorithms that exploit the network structure you should also have a look at specialized solvers around.


NetworkX is a pure Python library that deals with graphs:

NetworkX is a Python language software package for the creation, manipulation, and study of the structure, dynamics, and functions of complex networks (

The API is not very hard to learn, it’s well documented and obviously there is a active user community. NetworkX is released under the BSD license. It offers algorithms for many graph related issues (complete list here):

  • Clustering
  • Shortest Paths (Dijkstra, A*, Bellman-Ford, Floyd-Warshall)
  • Network flows (Minimum cost flow, maximum cost flow, minimum cut, Maximum flow minimum cost)
  • Minimum spanning tree


Google or-tools are a set of tools that deal not only with graph structures and algorithms but also with various other issues related to Operations Research (OR). This package is released under the Apache 2.0 license:

This project hosts operations research tools developed at Google and made available as open source. The project contains several tools:

  • A Constraint Programming solver.
  • A wrapper around third-party linear solvers (GLPK, CLP, CBC, SCIP, Sulum).
  • Knapsack algorithms.
  • Graph algorithms (shortest paths, min-cost flow, max flow, linear sum assignment).

Everything is coded in C++ and is available through SWIG in Python, Java, and .NET (using Mono on non-Windows platforms) (

Ok that’s it for now – let’s dive into the API of the packages in the next articles..

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März 24th, 2013

Solving the Minimum Cost Flow Problem (1) – Intro

Minimum cost flow problem: a short description

The Minimum cost flow problem (MCFP) is a generalized network flow problem that describes the goal of minimizing the total cost of flow through a network made of arcs and nodes which contains source, sink and transshipment nodes.

The minimum-cost flow problem is to find the cheapest possible way of sending a certain amount of flow through a flow network. Solving this problem is useful for real-life situations involving networks with costs associated (e.g. telecommunications networks), as well as in other situations where the analogy is not so obvious, such as where to locate warehouses (

Source nodes emit flow while sink nodes absorb flow. The flow through transshipment nodes is only intermediate: inflow must be equal to outflow at these nodes: so the net flow at these nodes is zero. Additionally there are maximum flow capacities on each arc of the network, i.e. it is not allowed that the amount of flow through a certain arc exceeds the maximum capacity specified on this arc.

In the following picture node 1 has 4 units of supply (= source node with positive value), node 4 has 4 units of demand (sink node with negative value) while nodes 2 and 3 are only transshipment nodes with a supply of zero. On the arcs you find lower flow bounds, upper flow bounds (or capacities) and costs. The goal is to ship 4 units from node 1 to node 4 with the lowest costs and without violation of the flow constraints (lower and upper bounds on the arcs).

Instance of a Minimum Cost Flow Problem

Instance of a Minimum Cost Flow Problem (

The Minimum cost flow problem can be seen as a general problem from which various other network flow problems can be derived:

  • Transportation problem
  • Transshipment problem
  • Assignment problem
  • Shortest path (tree) problem

A special case of the Minimum Cost Flow Problem is the famous transportation problem (TP). In a regular TP the network lacks transshipment nodes and capacities on the arcs. So it’s a simpler version of the MCFP. The transshipment problem comes with transshipment nodes but lacks capacities on the arcs of the network. The assignment problem is a special version of the transportation problem and you can even solve a shortest path (tree) problem as a MCFP. Read more on the theoretical background here.

So in short: if you have a MCFP-Solver at hand you are able to solve various problems with this package.

The assignment problem is a special case of the transportation problem, which is a special case of the minimum cost flow problem, which in turn is a special case of a linear program. While it is possible to solve any of these problems using the simplex algorithm, each specialization has more efficient algorithms designed to take advantage of its special structure (

As stated in this quote and in previous articles, you can describe and solve a MCFP as a Linear program with an ordinary LP solver package. The simplex algorithm will likely be applied in this case. Or you can speed up things (magnitudes faster!) with a solver that is specialized on network flow problems and exploits the network structure of the MCFP: a network simplex solver or the push-relabel algorithm.

More on this in the next articles..

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